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Bronchoscopy uses a flexible or rigid scope to visualize the airways, diagnose pathologic lesions, or perform interventions to relieve an airway obstruction. Interventions include biopsy of lesions, secretion removal, foreign body removal, balloon dilation, stent placement, or laser debridement. Flexible bronchoscopy can be performed on awake, sedated patients, while rigid bronchoscopy requires general anesthesia.

  •  American College of Surgeons
  • The Society of Thoracic Surgeon
  • American Medical Associations
  • American COllege of Chest physicians
  • California Medical Accosiantions
  • Orange County Medical Society
  • State of California
  • California Thoracic Society